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NCBI homepage Show account info Choline is a quaternary ammonium salt, and being an essential component of different membrane phospholipids (PLs) contributes to the structural integrity of cell membranes. Choline-containing phospholipids (CCPLs) include phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and choline alphoscerate (GPC). PC is the major phospholipid in most eukaryotic cells. It is involved in SM synthesis, choline/choline metabolite re-generation, and fatty acid/GPC formation. This paper has reviewed chemical, biological and therapeutic features of CCPLs by analyzing: a) effects of exogenous CCPLs, b) influence of GPC treatment on brain cholinergic neurotransmission, and c) neuroprotective effects of GPC alone or in association with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in animal models of brain vascular injury, d) synthesis of the choline analogs, containing a short alkyl chain instead of a methyl group. Cytidine-diphosphocholine and GPC, protect cell membranes and could be helpful in the sequelae of cerebrovascular accident treatment. Moreover, cellular membrane breakdown is suggested as a feature of neurodegeneration both in acute (stroke) and in chronic (Alzheimer and vascular dementia) brain disorders. Published data were focused to a larger extent on the biosynthesis, relevant role in cell life, and crucial involvement of CCPLs in cholinergic neurotransmission. The possibility of their use in the treatment of cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders is suggested by published clinical studies. In line with these potential practical applications in pharmacotherapy, the need of further research in the field of the synthesis of new choline derivatives with possible activity in nervous system diseases characterized by cholinergic impairment is discussed. Tayebati SK, Amenta F. Tayebati SK, et al. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013 Mar 1;51(3):513-21. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2012-0559. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013. PMID: 23314552 Review. Tayebati SK, Tomassoni D, Nwankwo IE, Di Stefano A, Sozio P, Cerasa LS, Amenta F. Tayebati SK, et al. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):94-103. doi: 10.2174/1871527311312010015. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013. PMID: 23244432 Parnetti L, Mignini F, Tomassoni D, Traini E, Amenta F. Parnetti L, et al. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Jun 15;257(1-2):264-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2007.01.043. Epub 2007 Feb 28. J Neurol Sci. 2007. PMID: 17331541 Review. Secades JJ, Frontera G. Secades JJ, et al. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Oct;17 Suppl B:1-54. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1995. PMID: 8709678 Review. Tayebati SK, Tomassoni D, Di Stefano A, Sozio P, Cerasa LS, Amenta F. Tayebati SK, et al. J Neurol Sci. 2011 Mar 15;302(1-2):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2010.11.028. Epub 2010 Dec 31. J Neurol Sci. 2011. PMID: 21195433 Trujillo-Gonzalez I, Friday WB, Munson CA, Bachleda A, Weiss ER, Alam NM, Sha W, Zeisel SH, Surzenko N. Trujillo-Gonzalez I, et al. FASEB J. 2019 Aug;33(8):9194-9209. doi: 10.1096/fj.201900444R. Epub 2019 May 15. FASEB J. 2019. PMID: 31091977 Free PMC article. Trujillo-Gonzalez I, Wang Y, Friday WB, Vickers KC, Toth CL, Molina-Torres L, Surzenko N, Zeisel SH. Trujillo-Gonzalez I, et al. FASEB J. 2019 Mar;33(3):3601-3612. doi: 10.1096/fj.201801094RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6. FASEB J. 2019. PMID: 30521373 Free PMC article. Tayebati SK. Tayebati SK. Molecules. 2018 Sep 5;23(9):2257. doi: 10.3390/molecules23092257. Molecules. 2018. PMID: 30189584 Free PMC article. Review.